Reading and writing are things we expect our students to be able to do in every subject. Our curricula are full of phrases like “Describe…, Explain…, Compare…”, which all require students to organize their thinking in a certain way. The non-fiction text in our math, science, social studies, and PAA courses require our students to break down complicated information. So how do we teach our students who are struggling with taking information in and/or communicating their understanding?
What? I Have to Teach Writing, Too??
Reading and writing are learning tools that exist across curricula. We often have our students read technical information in our science, social studies and mathematics courses and then ask them to write about their understanding during assignments and tests. Sometimes, our students come to us knowing how to do both. Sometimes, we are surprised and disappointed that they don’t seem to know how to apply their reading and writing strategies in our content area. As a math and science specialist, I want my students to use reading and writing as ways to deepen and broaden their understanding of the subjects that I am teaching them.
I would think that an ELA teacher explicitly teaches reading and writing strategies so that their students become stronger readers and writers. My intent as a science teacher is related but different. I want to use literacy instruction so that students understand science better.
I had many experiences early in my career where I assumed my students were able to research, write reports, write conclusions, or complete short answer questions on my exams. Those assumptions led to frustration and feelings of failure for both myself and my students. Sometimes, it took students failing to point out what explicit teaching I needed to do with my classes. Ultimately, if I have students who are struggling with reading and writing in my non-ELA class, I need to teach them those skills.
Reading, Writing and Comprehension
We sometimes view reading and writing as separate ideas. If we view them instead as ways that students take in and output knowledge, we can see that comprehension, or meaning making, is the bridge between the two. Reading is ONE way of taking information in, and writing is ONE way of sharing our knowledge. Our English Language Arts program recognizes that there are other, equally important modes of inputs and outputs.
Comprehension Strategies – Making Meaning
When we take information in, our mind uses different strategies to make meaning of new information. During a conversation, this occurs fluidly where we listen, make sense of information, then speak. The same is true of reading and writing. We read information, make meaning, then may write about what our new understanding is. Many literacy experts have grouped comprehension strategies into anywhere from six to thirteen strategies. Following the work of Ellin Keene, the following are SEVEN comprehension strategies that strong readers use.
For more detailed information about these seven comprehension strategies, see my earlier blog post, Comprehension Across Subjects.
Nonfiction Writing Lesson Framework
Adrienne Gear (2014) suggests the following lesson framework for each nonfiction form:
- An introduction to the features of the nonfiction form.
- This can be done by analyzing published examples of a nonfiction form.
- Independent write and Whole-class write can be woven together in a We DO – You DO cycle.
|Whole-class write:||Independent write:|
|The teacher and class write a passage together, going through the organizing steps together. This can be done on chart paper or projected on a screen.||Writing activities can vary in length. There should be multiple opportunities for each type of writing introduced in a year.|
|Plan and organize thinkingDraft piece of writingFocus on a writing techniqueRevision and editing techniques||Plan and organize thinkingDraft piece of writingFocus on a writing techniqueRevision and editing techniques|
Nonfiction Text Features
There are several text features that are useful within nonfiction to help readers understand the information being presented. These include:
|Map||To show location: e.g. habitat of animals|
|Web||List of any kind: for example, a list of food an animal eats or its enemies|
|Fact Box||Interesting, additional facts|
|Flow Chart||To show how things work together: e.g., life cycle|
|Chart||To sort details: e.g. facts about different species|
|Labels, Captions||To explain a diagram or picture|
|Timeline||Sequential events or dates|
|Diagram with Labels||Comparisons|
Helpful Nonfiction Mini Lessons
Mini lessons allow you to guide student writing skills without taking up a lot of time. Here are topics that Adrienne Gear suggests for helping improve writing quality. You can see some of her mini lesson resources here. Including ideas for:
- Adding Text Features
- Interesting Details
- Triple-Scoop Words
- Comparison using Similes and Metaphors
- Introductions to Hook Your Reader
Sharing Our Understanding: Non-Fiction Forms of Writing
Part of introducing nonfiction forms is for students to recognize key features of each form. This can be done by analyzing published works, both in print and online. Books from your library can be used to help students visualize the type of writing you are expecting them to do. There are many different forms of non-fiction writing that students both read and are expected to write themselves. Each of these forms has their own purpose and form. (Gear, 2014)
Different forms of writing can be used within the same topic and subject area. For example:
|Type of Writing||Writer’s Intent||Example||Application: Weather|
|Description||To provide reader with facts and information about a topic. Related subtopics tell us specific details about the main idea. Writers give details related to our five senses.||Descriptive reports on countries, animals, plants, insects, etc.Classroom blogs.Book or movie reviews.||Describe the weather in Saskatchewan in January.|
|Instruction||To provide reader with instructions on how to achieve a goal, do something, make something, get somewhere.||How something works: e.g. manuals, how to use something, survival guides.How to do or make something: e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, crafts, instructions on starting a blog page.||Give the instructions for how to make a winter survival kit.|
|Persuasion||To share an opinion with the reader or attempt to convince the reader to take an action of some kind.||Opinion piece: e.g. favourite book, movie, pet, season.Persuasive piece: e.g. you should eat a healthy diet; no school uniforms; best chocolate bar to buy; oru school is the best.Classroom blogs or online reviews.||Which form of weather is deadliest to humans?|
|Comparison||To share with the reader the similarities and differences between two topics or ideas.||Compare (similarities) and contrast (differences): e.g. rabbits and hares; Canada and Japan; cars then and now.||Compare a winter blizzard and summer hail in Saskatchewan.|
|Explanation||To provide reader with facts explaining how or why something happens.||Scientific explanations: e.g. how a spider spins a web, why some things float and others sink.||Explain how blizzards form.|
|Nonfiction Narrative||To provide reader with sequential description of events in a person’s life, a current or historical event.||Biography of a famous or non-famous person.AutobiographyCurrent event/newspaperPast eventBlogs or tweets||Give a report on the Newfoundland blizzard of January, 2020.|
A useful analysis is to look at our curriculum and identify where it would be most useful for students to incorporate each type of writing to deepen their understanding. This can be done in a simple chart such as the one found here.
Pre-Thinking for Writing
Writing can help students understand subject content if we have them do pre-thinking before they write. This pre-thinking has them use comprehension strategies to deepen their understanding so that they can write.
A barrier for students might be that they do not understand either the content that they are having to write about OR they do not understand the structure of what you are asking them to write.
When we have students organize their thinking before they write, they will not only understand their courses better, but they will have their thinking organized in a way that helps them write.
You can take a closer look at different forms of writing, including assessment criteria in the following summaries, as well as view helpful pre-thinking tools for each type of writing:
- A useful pre-thinking tool for descriptive writing is the FRAME.
- A useful pre-thinking tool for persuasive writing is a Planning to Persuade graphic organizer, that outlines useful word choices.
- A useful pre-thinking tool for explanatory writing is a Planning to Explain graphic organizer, that outlines useful words and features.
Ultimately, teaching meaning making and how to express understanding can help our students know the subjects we are teaching them and help them to connect school content with their lives.
Eaton, S. E. (2010, September 26). Reading Strategy: The difference between summarizing and synthesizing. Retrieved from http://www.drsaraheaton.wordpress.com
Gear, A. (2014). Nonfiction Writing Power. Markham: Pembroke Publishers.
Johanson, T., & Broughton, D. (2014). Exploring Comprehension in Physics. Saskatoon: McDowell Foundation.
Keene, E., & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Readers Workshop. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Public Education & Business Coalition. (n.d.). Thinking Strategies for Learners: A guide to PEBC’s professional development in reading, writing, mathematics and information literacy. Retrieved December 15, 2018, from Public Education & Business Coalition: https://www.pebc.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/thinking-strategies.pdf
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. (2008). English Language Arts 6. Retrieved from Saskatchewan Curriculum: https://www.curriculum.gov.sk.ca/bbcswebdav/library/curricula/English/English_Language_Arts/English_Language_Arts_6_2008.pdf